Using 3D EM with seismic and geological information enhances the understanding of the subsurface by limiting the range of possible geological scenarios.  3D EM is sensitive to net rock volume and pore fluid, making it a powerful tool in reserves estimation.  The EM response of a hydrocarbon accumulation is a partially guided wave response whose strength depends on area x net pay thickness.

This unique property of EM data can result in a significant reduction in uncertainty since prospect area and net pay are associated with the highest uncertainties in reserves estimation, especially in frontier exploration and for stratigraphic traps.

Value created

3D EM reduces uncertainty in risk and reserve estimates and can high-grade commercial prospects or disqualify non-commercial prospects.  The ability to drop 3D EM negative (non-commercial) prospects and focus drilling budgets on 3D EM positive prospects delivers a significant competitive advantage.